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Department of Orthopaedic
Knee Replacement Surgery

Improve your range of motion, minimise your knee pain, and gain freedom of mobility with our knee replacement surgery.
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Anatomy of the Knee

The knee joint is the biggest in the human body, connecting the thigh-bone or femur to the Tibia or shin-bone in the lower leg. The knee joint is a hinge-type synovial joint and one of the most complex joints in the body. It is a network of ligaments and muscles that keeps the body sturdy while standing or moving around. The most important components of the knee joint are the Meniscus and other ligaments like PCL, ACL, MCL, and LCL.

Medical experts performing a knee-replacement surgery.

About Knee Replacement Surgery

Knee Replacement is the most commonly performed joint replacement surgery in the world. The need for knee replacement arises from the severe and irreversible damage to the two joint surfaces of the knee.

Types of Knee Replacement

Our doctors will advise a total knee replacement when the knee joint is completely destroyed. Recently, there has been a significant advancement in surgical procedures for patients with joint surface damage. This means that it is now possible for patients to undergo a specialised surgery known as "unicondylar knee replacement" when only one of the two joint surfaces is affected. This groundbreaking procedure offers a promising solution for patients, allowing them to avoid the need for a total joint replacement.

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When Will You Require Knee Replacement 

While knee replacements are fundamentally done to get rid of knee pains, NOT ALL knee pains require replacement or even surgery, for that matter. However, the two most important factors that are indicative of needing joint replacements are:
Progressive pain resulting in reduced mobility of the person.
As we grow older, the need for mobility increases as we risk developing lifestyle and potentially more dangerous diseases like diabetes, high BP, and heart problems. Hence, when progressive knee pain inhibits mobility in older adults (sometimes affecting their ability to walk short distances to the restroom), a knee replacement will help kickstart their lives and restore their pain-free mobility.
When all other non-surgical modalities of management have failed.
When all other treatment options, such as ice packs, physiotherapy, and hyaluronic joint injections, have no effect or insufficient relief from improvement, a total or unicondylar (partial) knee replacement must be considered.

Indications for Knee Replacement Surgery

Age-related Osteoarthritis commonly seen in patients between the age groups of sixty-five and above.
Severe irreparable joint damage resulting from untreated or inadequately treated injuries such as ACL or meniscus tears in the knee and knee joint fractures.
Diseases that accelerate arthritis of joints such as progressive Rheumatoid Arthritis, untreated gout, and other joint-destroying diseases.
Image showing a normal knee, a knee with Osteoarthritis & progressive Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Myths & Truths About Knee Replacement Surgeries

Technological advancements in joint replacement surgeries, particularly knee replacements, have made this procedure incredibly safe and patient-friendly. The procedure:
Decorative time icon.
Does not require prolonged bed rest after surgery

At Sri Balaji Hospital, we minimise the time spent in bed and ensure the patient starts walking with support within 24 hours of the surgery. Once that is achieved, there is no limit to how much the patient can/should walk after that. In fact, we encourage our patients to walk more frequently and for longer periods and ensure our patients are comfortable climbing up and down the staircase within 21 days of the surgery.

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Minimal post-operative pain

Recent breakthroughs in pain relief, such as the protocols used in Sri Balaji Hospital, ensure the patient has a very comfortable and low-pain post-operative period without depending on painkillers.

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Minimal duration of hospital stay

Given that the aforementioned points are achieved at Sri Balaji Hospital, the hospital stay post-knee replacement duration is also minimised. Over the last 500 joint surgeries performed at Sri Balaji Hospital, the average duration of stay (before pain-free discharge) has been between 3 and 4 days.

How to Plan for Knee Replacement Surgery

Pre-Operative Period
The Procedure
Post-Operative Period
Post- Discharge
Discharge Medication
Expected Results by Third Week
Expected Results Within the Sixth Week
Follow-Up Doctor Visits

Our doctors will perform an initial assessment of the painful knee joint, followed by an X-ray for further assessment. On rare occasions, they may recommend an MRI or CT image examination of the joint.

Having assessed the patient thoroughly (the joint and the general condition of the individual), if the need for surgery has been decided, the patient will undergo some tests to confirm that the patient is indeed in good health to benefit from this surgery. These tests include (but are not limited to):

  • Blood tests
  • ECG & echocardiogram performed by our cardiologist.
  • Pre-operative assessment by the anaesthesiologist in charge of the patient’s intra-operative anaesthesia.
  • Other patient-specific tests, if proven necessary from the routine pre-op blood tests and/ or if suggested by the specialists involved in the pre-operative health assessment.

Sri Balaji Hospital is one of the foremost medical centres for knee replacement surgery in Chennai. Our doctors perform all knee replacement surgeries under regional anaesthesia. This means while the patient is completely pain-free throughout the surgery, they will always be conscious and oriented. This helps minimise risks associated with general anaesthesia while enjoying the benefits of a pain-free surgical experience.

During the procedure, the damaged/worn-out portion of the joint is replaced with a personalised prosthesis designed to resemble the measurements of the patient's natural joint itself. The prosthesis may be of the following material:

  • Metal On Poly
    In this combination of prosthesis, the metal parts of the joint are made up of a metal titanium or an alloy of cobalt & chromium. The two metallic surfaces of the replaced joint are lined by a spacer made of medical-grade polyethylene.
  • Oxinium On Poly
    Oxidises zirconium on medical grade polyethylene.
  • Ceramic On Poly
    Comprises a ceramic metal as a joint surface with a spacer made of medical-grade polyethylene.
The X-ray above depicts an instance of joint damage requiring total knee replacement. The inner portion of the joint has no joint space (space between the ends of the thigh bone and the beginning of the leg bone). The post-operative X-ray shows the restoration of joint space EQUALLY and ensures eradication of the damaged ends of the joint surface, ensuring a pain-free future.
  • Pre and post-operative X-rays show the restoration of joint space.
  • Pre and post-operative X-rays of damaged and repaired knees.
  • Pre and post-operative X-rays of damaged and repaired left knee.
  • Pre and post-operative X-rays of damaged and repaired knees of a patient.
  • Pre and post-operative X-rays of damaged and repaired right knee.
  • The patients are usually allowed to stand/ walk (with little-to-no pain) within 24 hours and are allowed to be self-sufficient and use the restroom themselves with little-to-no support.
  • The patient is started on knee bending exercises on day two following the procedure.
  • Wound inspection and de-bulking of the dressing is also done on the day.
  • On Day 3 and Day 4, the patient will receive further physical therapy, reaching a level of confidence that allows them to return to the comfort of their own home and self-care without needing additional support. Hence, it is on one of these days that the patient is usually declared fit for discharge.
At Sri Balaji Hospital, our rehabilitation program is designed to empower patients to confidently, effortlessly, and independently perform their essential physical therapy at home without relying on external assistance.

The patient may be put on the following types of medication at the time of discharge:

  • Mild antibiotic
    To protect the patient from home-acquired infections for a total period of seven days.
  • Anti-coagulant (only if necessary)
    Our doctors may recommend an anti-coagulant tablet before being discharged. The duration of this tablet will also be suggested as per the patient's requirements only.
  • Pain relief
    A mild pain relief tablet for three days.

The patient will be ready for suture (stitch) removal by the 14th day. Between the date of discharge and suture removal, the patient may require one or two dressings. If desired, these dressings, including suture removal, can be effortlessly carried out in the comfort of your own home.

Here, at Sri Balaji Hospital, we strive for the very best results & hence, on average, most of our patients walk pain-free without external support by the third or fourth week.

Hence, our patients can resume their office duties and daily routines by the third week. They can enjoy long walks outside their homes and visit parks, malls, beaches and places of worship. Patients are also encouraged to climb up & down staircases to improve their mobility.

By this time, the patient is now completely pain-free. They can enjoy their body’s peak performance, including pain-free climbing up/ down the staircase numerous times per day. They can also resume strenuous activities like swimming, cycling, and running.

After the 6th week, the patient requires only two more visits to the doctor:

  • Once in the 3rd month (12 weeks).
  • One final visit in the 6th month (24th week).
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Sri Balaji Hospital is a centre for Orthopaedics and Traumatology and is unwavering in its commitment to providing high-quality healthcare at affordable rates. Our dedication stems from the belief that you, the community, are at the core of every endeavour, deserving nothing less than the utmost care.
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